Do You Love History? Coronavirus It Will Surprise You!

For the month of June, we have been dedicating our entire blogging segments to the world at large and specifically about the Coronavirus. We felt that we had touched on the subject here and there throughout these very interesting times but wanted to share a bit of additional knowledge that we had found during our research for those other articles.

One piece of history which stands out more than all the rest when conducting research into the Coronavirus is that it has been in existence for over 100-years!

Yes, you read that correctly.

Coronavirus was first reported in North America in the 1920s.

The virus mutated over 4-decades when it became “humanized” in the 1960s.

WHAT?!?!?!

The History of Coronavirus

transcribed from Wikipedia “Coronavirus” subsection History

  • 1920s the first coronavirus infection is found in animals causing acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens in North America
  • 1931 Arthur Schallk and M.C. Hawn write a detailed report describing this new respiratory infection of chickens in North Dakota
  • 1933 its named infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)
  • 1937 the virus is cultivated for the first time by Charles D. Hudson and Fred R. Beaudette
    • it became known as the Beaudette strain
  • 1940s two more animal coronaviruses come into existence
    • JHM causes brain disease (murine encephalitis)
    • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHC) that causes hepatitis in mice
      • At the time, scientists did not realize that Beaudette strain, JHM and MHC were all related to each other
  • 1960s the first Human coronavirus were discovered in the United Kingdom and United States
  • 1961 a unique common cold virus designated as B814 is collected and several scientists were unable to cultivate it like other common cold viruses
    • They learnt it was inactivated by ether
  • 1962 scientists at the University of Chicago inoculated volunteers with an isolated novel cold
    • They isolated and grew the virus
    • They learnt it was inactivated by ether which indicated it had a lipid envelope
    • It was designated 229E
  • 1965 Tyrrell and Bynoe cultivated a novel virus by passing it through organ culture of human embryonic trachea
  • 1967 Scottish virologist June Almeida in London compared the structures of IBV, B814 and 229E.
    • She discovers with Tyrrell that the three viruses were morphologically related by their general shape and distinctive club-like spikes.
  • 1967 a research group at the National Institute of Health isolate another member of this new group of viruses using organ culture and named a sample OC43
    • OC = organ culture
  • The following group of novel cold viruses were named Coronaviruses after the distinctive morphological appearance;
    • IBV, B814, 229E and OC43
  • 1970 Human coronavirus 229E continues to be studied by scientists
    • Between these two decades the B814 strain is lost
  • 1980 Human coronavirus OC43 continues to be studied by scientists
  • 2003 a strain of coronavirus breaks out in Asia and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
    • Is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-1 which often leads to severe illness and is marked by systemic symptoms of muscle pain, headache and fever followed by up to 14 days of onset respiratory symptoms
      • cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia
  • 2004 another species of coronavirus is identified in late 2004 in a child in the Netherlands
    • The virus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to ACE2.
    • The virus is found primarily in young children and the elderly and immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory illness
    • This new variant, HCoV NL63 is formed by a recombination of an ancestral NL63-like virus circulating in African Triaenops Ofer bats and CoV 229E in Hippsoideros bats.
  • 2004 is a species of human coronavirus and causes upper respiratory disease with symptoms of the common cold but can cause advanced pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
    • First discovered in January 2004 in a 71-year old man who was hospitalized due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and radiographically confirmed bilateral pneumonia
    • He had returned from Hong Kong to Shenzhen, China
    • After researching HCoV HKU1 scientists determined it to be closely related to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and other distinct human beatcoronaviruses such as HCoV-OC43.
  • 2013 arrived in June 2012 in the Middle East and was known as MERS for Middle East respiratory syndrome. This species of coronavirus infected humans, bats and camels.
    • The MERS-CoV outbreak hit 21 countries in Europe, North America, Asia and the Middle East.
    • MERS-CoV from its introduction to November 2019 had 2,494 reported cases with 858 deaths implying a case fatality rate greater than 30%.
  • 2019
    • The World Health Organization (WHO) declares an outbreak of Public Health Emergency of International Concern on January 30, 2020
      • Coronavirus 19
      • COVID-19
      • SARS-CoV-2
      • is described as a respiratory illness and is responsible for the worldwide pandemic.

All historical notes above were transcribed from Wikipedia “Coronavirus”